The next generation of Ethanol fuel
" The second generation of bio-fuels is worth waiting its appearance "
industrial experience from the first generation of production
(increased implementation of distribution networks, establishment of a
fleet of vehicles fueled with
E85and available for purchase, information on the benefits of this fuel) will allow the advent of this second generation.
| " The ethanol has a low yield by nature "
This figure is compared with the 0.87 performance obtained by the petrol sector.
Flex Fuel vehicles
The opening of pumps
|" Bio-ethanol will see its development prevented by not opening enough E85 pumps "
Fuel vehicles claim 10% of the registrations in this country, and 4
years were needed to see the opening of 200 pumps offering E85.
More than 322 pumps are already operational in France at the end of January 2010.
" Deforestation contributes to global warming is linked to the production of ethanol "
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published in
April 2007 a study showing that 41.88 million square kilometers of
land worldwide is available for crop production, while only 15.06
million of sq. km is actually used, and only 0.11 million sq. km is
for bio-fuels, according to Dr. Joseph Schmidhuber.
link was established between the destruction of the rainforests and
the expansion of bio-fuels.
the South-Central Brazil, the Amazon forest is not present and it is
in this region that it cultivates the majority of sugar cane to
90 million hectares are also available for agriculture of the country without the need to damage the rainforests.
The price rise
" The price of raw materials will increase competition between food and energy surfaces "
Brazilian sugar cane and sugar beet in Europe remained stable while the prices for cereals have been increasing.
increase in global demand is one of many factors in addition to the
production of ethanol, which is responsible for this increase.
"The impact of bio-fuels on agricultural prices has been overestimated", Mr. Boonekamp of the OECD recently declared.
food prices of products is not induced only by the increase in
agricultural prices. Why? Because in the food prices, the role of
agricultural products is low and is much more than that of energy or the
Thus wheat does affect 10% of the price of baguette bread.
The attitude of the European Union
" The European Union has decided to stop the development of ethanol "
European Commission recalled on January 23, 2008 that the measures laid
down in 2007 were still in force, at a time when climate urgency is
real and that the transport sector remains the leader in CO2 emissions
(35% of total emissions).
said bio-fuels will undoubtedly impact on the non-negligible emissions
of greenhouse gas emissions from transport as a renewable energy.
is critical that the transportation sector, because of its reduction in
emissions cancels greenhouse gas emissions produced at high prices in
Risks of food shortage
|" Risks of food shortage in the world are increased by the production of bio-ethanol "
The historically low global food reserves are not a consequence of the development of bio-ethanol.
factors explain this situation: droughts having led to poor harvests,
climate change showing diseases and insects, strong increase in demand
for food products (including cereals) from countries like India and
to the current shortage affecting commodities/raw materials, Mr.
Boonekamp OECD said recently: "Bio-fuels or not, this shortage would
affect the world".
In the European Union, the production of bio-ethanol destined for Europe will require 15% of the area in 2010.
The dregs and pulp, co-production of bio-ethanol, are useful for animal feed, thus limiting imports of soybeans (350kg of grains are derived from the production of a ton of bio-ethanol).
Produce Bioethanol requires a very pollutant agriculture
| " A
polluting agriculture is necessary for the production of ethanol "
The evolution of agricultural knowledge and culture techniques has enabled the progress of agricultural practices for more than twenty years.
has generated since 1990 a division of the most common nitrogen
fertilizer and constant use of nitrogen fertilizer.
These constant improvement practices have enabled 33% reduction in 6 years (1999-2006) of the amount of fertilizer used per hectare. Lower doses of pesticides were 24% (2001-2005).
1990 to 2005, greenhouse gas emissions declined 11% in the
agricultural sector while the transport grew by 22% during the same
European agricultural subsidies are granted
since 2003 in the light of compliance with those practices.
" Ethanol production involves the cultivation of lands usually reserved for food crops "
objective of incorporation of 5.75% initially fixed for 2008 will not
be met by oil companies "
and determination are the hallmarks
of this goal that can be achieved by combining three authorized
uses of ethanol:
direct incorporation, E85, and diesel.
A derogation may be obtained in France to embed ethanol beyond the limit set in the European Union (5%).
Ethanol is more polluting than the fossil fuels
fuels are less polluting than ethanol "
The ADEME and the Ministry of Industry have carried out in 2002 a study whose results are very clear.
The impact on the greenhouse effect of the ethanol industry is 2.5 times lower than in the petrol sector.
The ethanol industry was conducted "from field to wheel", i.e. taking account of all CO2 emissions part of the production process.
French Institute of Petroleum has performed action on a range of
vehicles running on ethanol and gasoline, alternately.
The results show that emissions are reduced due to the use of ethanol. It offers compared to gasoline, a minimum of 60% profit for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and minimum 50% e for carbon monoxide (CO).
Renewable energy, ethanol dissolves completely in water.