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The next generation of Ethanol fuel

 " The second generation of bio-fuels is worth waiting its appearance "


Everything is in favor of the first generation: positive environmental and energy availability at a perfect time for urgent climate, economic benefits..

The first two generations cannot be separated. It is not until 2015 that the second-generation ethanol will be a reality for the economy and the industry significantly.

Only industrial experience from the first generation of production (increased implementation of distribution networks, establishment of a fleet of vehicles fueled with

E85and available for purchase, information on the benefits of this fuel) will allow the advent of this second generation.

The performance

" The ethanol has a low yield by nature "


Conducted in 2002 at the request of the ADEME and the Ministry of industry a study showed the efficiency of the chains of production of ethanol from wheat and beet to be 2 (based on: rendered energy / mobilized non-renewable energy).

This figure is compared with the 0.87 performance obtained by the petrol sector.

That same year, prospective scenarios are confirmed with obtaining a 3-fold new ethanol production units (on the basis of energy consumed/energy produced).

Flex Fuel vehicles

 " Car manufacturers have virtually stopped production of Flex Fuel vehicles "

A dozen models of Flex Fuel vehicles are available to motorists from 6 French manufacturers. 8500 Flex Fuel vehicles circulated at the end of 2009.

Periodically, new models and manufacturers are introduced on the market Flex Fuel version of the Renault Kangoo added to the range recently, and the arrival of Cadillac by example is another evidence.

The opening of pumps

" Bio-ethanol will see its development prevented by not opening enough E85 pumps "


The ethanol (E85) develops a tangible way. Within a year and over the same period, France managed to record a significantly higher than that of Sweden balance.

Flex Fuel vehicles claim 10% of the registrations in this country, and 4 years were needed to see the opening of 200 pumps offering E85.

More than 322 pumps are already operational in France at the end of January 2010.

Development

" The unwillingness of the State prevent the development of ethanol "

The Minister of Budget, Public Accounts and Public Service Eric Woerth has reaffirmed this commitment in late January to all members, recalling France can retain its energy independence through bio-fuels which offer professional opportunities for agricultural development and which can intensify the fight against the greenhouse effect.

The initial objective, incorporate 10% by 2015, is still topical.

The Minister of Agriculture Michel Barnier, meanwhile recently recalled that the agricultural policy of France could and should meet the challenges of food, energy and environment, and at the same time.

"France has a sufficient number of arable land to increase production of bio-fuels without posing any threat to food crops which remain a priority."

Deforestation

" Deforestation contributes to global warming is linked to the production of ethanol "


Only producing countries outside of the European Union are concerned, and not the production of ethanol-induced deforestation.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published in April 2007 a study showing that 41.88 million square kilometers of land worldwide is available for crop production, while only 15.06 million of sq. km is actually used, and only 0.11 million sq. km is for bio-fuels, according to Dr. Joseph Schmidhuber.

No link was established between the destruction of the rainforests and the expansion of bio-fuels.

To the South-Central Brazil, the Amazon forest is not present and it is in this region that it cultivates the majority of sugar cane to produce ethanol.

90 million hectares are also available for agriculture of the country without the need to damage the rainforests.

The price rise

 " The price of raw materials will increase competition between food and energy surfaces "

Brazilian sugar cane and sugar beet in Europe remained stable while the prices for cereals have been increasing.

The increase in global demand is one of many factors in addition to the production of ethanol, which is responsible for this increase.

"The impact of bio-fuels on agricultural prices has been overestimated", Mr. Boonekamp of the OECD recently declared.

Rising food prices of products is not induced only by the increase in agricultural prices. Why? Because in the food prices, the role of agricultural products is low and is much more than that of energy or the workforce.

Thus wheat does affect 10% of the price of baguette bread.

The attitude of the European Union

" The European Union has decided to stop the development of ethanol "

The European Commission recalled on January 23, 2008 that the measures laid down in 2007 were still in force, at a time when climate urgency is real and that the transport sector remains the leader in CO2 emissions (35% of total emissions).

She said bio-fuels will undoubtedly impact on the non-negligible emissions of greenhouse gas emissions from transport as a renewable energy.

The agriculture Commissioner Mariann Fischer Boel stated firmly on 13 March that the attitude of the European Union would not change.

Development of bio-fuels, according to the European Commission policy, gives rise to a strong reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases compared to the emissions caused by the use of oil: "The most rapid implementation is represented by bio-fuels, in order to slow down drastically with the dramatic increase in emissions of greenhouse gases emissions in the transport sector.” I

t is critical that the transportation sector, because of its reduction in emissions cancels greenhouse gas emissions produced at high prices in other sectors.

Risks of food shortage

" Risks of food shortage in the world are increased by the production of bio-ethanol "

The historically low global food reserves are not a consequence of the development of bio-ethanol.

Multiple factors explain this situation: droughts having led to poor harvests, climate change showing diseases and insects, strong increase in demand for food products (including cereals) from countries like India and China...

Referring to the current shortage affecting commodities/raw materials, Mr. Boonekamp OECD said recently: "Bio-fuels or not, this shortage would affect the world".

In the European Union, the production of bio-ethanol destined for Europe will require 15% of the area in 2010.

The dregs and pulp, co-production of bio-ethanol, are useful for animal feed, thus  limiting imports of soybeans (350kg of grains are derived from the production of a ton of bio-ethanol).

Produce Bioethanol requires a very pollutant agriculture

 " A highly polluting agriculture is necessary for the production of ethanol "


The evolution of agricultural knowledge and culture techniques has enabled the progress of agricultural practices for more than twenty years.

This has generated since 1990 a division of the most common nitrogen fertilizer and constant use of nitrogen fertilizer.

These constant improvement practices have enabled 33% reduction in 6 years (1999-2006) of the amount of fertilizer used per hectare. Lower doses of pesticides were 24% (2001-2005).

 

From 1990 to 2005, greenhouse gas emissions declined 11% in the agricultural sector while the transport grew by 22% during the same period.
Compliance with good environmental practices is of major importance in the 1992 cultivation techniques.

European agricultural subsidies are granted since 2003 in the light of compliance with those practices.
Whatever their destination (human, animal or ethanol) methods of cultivation of cereals and / or beet are similar.

Food Crops

" Ethanol production involves the cultivation of lands usually reserved for food crops "


Bio-ethanol is an additional outlet for agriculture. No conflict is identified in France and in Europe between food-oriented crop production and those related to the development of ethanol.

By 2010, gradually, the ethanol sector will grow in France. This country will spend only 3% (i.e. less than 270,000 hectares) of the total area devoted to cereals and sugar beet ethanol (figures ONIGC).

Additional space will be available via re-cultivation of fallow land equivalent to 1.3 million hectares in France and will be devoted to the production of ethanol.

The European Commission has published a study in July 2007 which states that in 2020 the area devoted to energy crops will reach 17.5 million hectares (15% of farmland in the European Union).

Incorporation

" The objective of incorporation of 5.75% initially fixed for 2008 will not be met by oil companies "


Ambition and determination are the hallmarks of this goal that can be achieved by combining three authorized uses of ethanol: direct incorporation, E85, and diesel.

A derogation may be obtained in France to embed ethanol beyond the limit set in the European Union (5%).

Ethanol is more polluting than the fossil fuels

" Fossil fuels are less polluting than ethanol "

The ADEME and the Ministry of Industry have carried out in 2002 a study whose results are very clear.

The impact on the greenhouse effect of the ethanol industry is 2.5 times lower than in the petrol sector.

The ethanol industry was conducted "from field to wheel", i.e. taking account of all CO2 emissions part of the production process.

The French Institute of Petroleum has performed action on a range of vehicles running on ethanol and gasoline, alternately.

The results show that emissions are reduced due to the use of ethanol. It offers compared to gasoline, a minimum of 60% profit for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and minimum 50% e for carbon monoxide (CO).

Renewable energy, ethanol dissolves completely in water.


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